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Process Cooling

Updated: Nov 28, 2023

Process cooling refers to using cooling equipment to maintain consistent temperatures in industrial processes, such as manufacturing, food and beverage processing, data centers, and medical and pharmaceutical industries. In this article, we will discuss the importance of process cooling, the science of process cooling, applications of process cooling, types of process cooling equipment, factors affecting process cooling equipment efficiency, the environmental considerations regarding process cooling equipment, and maintaining and optimizing process cooling equipment.

The Importance of Process Cooling

Process cooling is crucial for ensuring product quality, improving productivity, and ensuring safe working conditions. Temperature control is essential for ensuring product quality and safety in many industries. For example, in the food and beverage industry, precise temperature control is necessary to maintain the freshness of products and prevent spoilage. Likewise, temperature control is critical for ensuring that medications and vaccines remain effective in the medical and pharmaceutical industries.

Process cooling is also important for maintaining equipment reliability and productivity. High temperatures can damage equipment and reduce lifespan, leading to costly repairs and downtime. By using process cooling, businesses can extend the life of their equipment and minimize downtime, increasing productivity and profitability.

Understanding the Science of Process Cooling

Process cooling relies on the science of heat transfer, which involves the movement of thermal energy from one object to another. There are three primary mechanisms of heat transfer: conduction, convection, and radiation, all of which play important roles in process cooling.


Conduction is the transfer of heat through a solid material, such as metal or plastic. In process cooling, conduction can be seen in the transfer of heat from the hot components of a manufacturing process to the cooling equipment. For example, in a plastics processing plant, heat generated during the extrusion process can be conducted through metal pipes or other materials to the cooling equipment.


Convection is the transfer of heat through a fluid, such as air or water. This mechanism is key in many process cooling systems, such as air-cooled or water-cooled chillers. For instance, the air is blown over the condenser coils to remove heat and cool the refrigerant in an air-cooled chiller. Similarly, in a water-cooled chiller, water flows through the condenser to absorb heat from the refrigerant and transfer it to a cooling tower.


Radiation is the transfer of heat through electromagnetic waves. For example, in process cooling, radiation is used in some specialized equipment, such as infrared heaters, which transfer heat directly to the object being heated without needing a medium like air or water.

In addition to these heat transfer mechanisms, a fluid's phase changes, such as evaporation or condensation, can also be used for cooling. For example, a liquid is evaporated to remove heat from a process in evaporative cooling. This method is commonly used in cooling towers, where hot water is sprayed into the tower and allowed to evaporate, removing heat from the process and cooling the water.

Overall, understanding the science of heat transfer is critical for the effective operation of process cooling systems. By selecting the appropriate cooling equipment and understanding the specific mechanisms of heat transfer involved in the process, businesses can optimize their cooling systems for maximum efficiency and performance.

Applications of Process Cooling

Process cooling is used in various industries to maintain temperature control and ensure product quality and safety. Here are some of the most common applications of process cooling:

Manufacturing and Production

Many manufacturing processes generate heat, which can cause equipment failure and reduce product quality. Process cooling maintains the required temperature for these processes, ensuring that products are manufactured correctly and efficiently.

Plastics Processing

Plastic products are created through a heating and cooling process. Process cooling is used to cool the plastic to a specific temperature, which allows it to solidify and maintain its shape.

Food and Beverage Processing

Process cooling is critical in the food and beverage industry to maintain the freshness of products and prevent spoilage. For example, in breweries, cooling is required during fermentation to maintain the required temperature and prevent the growth of unwanted bacteria.

Data Centers

Data centers generate significant heat due to the high-power usage of servers and other equipment. Process cooling maintains the temperature within a narrow range to prevent equipment failure and ensure data integrity.

Medical and Pharmaceutical Industries

Many medical and pharmaceutical products require strict temperature control to maintain efficacy. Process cooling ensures these products are stored and transported at the correct temperature.

Other Applications

Process cooling is also used in automotive, chemical processing, and HVAC systems industries.

In all of these applications, process cooling plays a critical role in ensuring product quality and safety, extending equipment life, and maintaining safe working conditions.

Types of Process Cooling Equipment

Several types of process cooling equipment are used in process cooling, each with its own advantages and disadvantages. Here are some of the most common types of cooling equipment:

Air-Cooled Chillers

Air-cooled chillers use ambient air to cool the refrigerant and circulate through a heat exchanger to cool the process fluid. These chillers are often used in applications where water is scarce, or it is not feasible to use a water-cooled chiller.

Water-Cooled Chillers

Water-cooled chillers use water to cool the refrigerant and circulate through a heat exchanger to cool the process fluid. These chillers are often more efficient than air-cooled chillers, but they require a constant water supply.

Glycol Chillers

Glycol chillers use water and glycol as the cooling fluid. This type of chiller is often used in applications where the process fluid cannot be in direct contact with water, such as in the food and beverage industry.

Cooling Towers

Cooling towers dissipate heat from water used to cool a process. The tower works by evaporating a portion of the water, which removes heat from the remaining water. The cooled water is then recirculated to the process.

Heat Exchangers

Heat exchangers transfer heat from one fluid to another without mixing them. In process cooling, a heat exchanger is often used to transfer heat from the process fluid to the cooling fluid, such as water or glycol.

Each type of process cooling equipment has unique advantages and disadvantages, and the choice of equipment will depend on the application's specific requirements. Factors to consider when selecting cooling equipment include the temperature range required, the size of the equipment, the availability of utilities such as water and electricity, and the cost of the equipment and operation.

Factors Affecting Process Cooling Equipment Efficiency

The efficiency of process cooling equipment is dependent on several factors, including

Ambient Temperature

The ambient temperature affects the efficiency of cooling equipment. Higher ambient temperatures will reduce the efficiency of air-cooled equipment, whereas lower temperatures can improve the efficiency of water-cooled equipment.


Air-cooled equipment requires a steady supply of airflow to function efficiently. If the airflow is restricted, the cooling capacity of the equipment will be reduced. Therefore, it is important to ensure that air-cooled equipment is installed in an area with adequate airflow and that air filters are regularly cleaned or replaced.

Water or Glycol Temperature and Flow Rate

Water and glycol temperature and flow rate can significantly impact the efficiency of cooling equipment. If the water or glycol temperature is too high or the flow rate is too low, the cooling capacity of the equipment will be reduced. Therefore, it is important to maintain the correct temperature and flow rate to ensure that the equipment is functioning optimally.

Regular Maintenance

Regular maintenance is essential to ensure that cooling equipment functions efficiently. This includes cleaning filters, checking fluid levels, and inspecting the equipment for signs of wear and tear. In addition, regular maintenance can help to identify and address any issues before they become more serious and result in equipment failure.

By considering these factors, it is possible to optimize the performance of process cooling equipment, reduce energy consumption, and prolong the lifespan of the equipment. In addition, regular maintenance and monitoring can help to identify any issues and ensure that the equipment is functioning at maximum efficiency.

Environmental Considerations Regarding Process Cooling Equipment

In addition to optimizing process cooling equipment performance, it is important to consider the importance of energy efficiency, sustainable cooling options, and best practices for reducing energy consumption and waste regarding process cooling systems.

The Importance of Energy Efficiency in Process Cooling

Energy consumption is expensive for many businesses and industries. Process cooling systems can account for a substantial portion of this energy use. By improving the energy efficiency of process cooling systems, businesses can reduce their energy consumption, lower operating costs, and improve their environmental impact.

Sustainable Cooling Options

Several sustainable cooling options can help businesses reduce their environmental impact. These include using renewable energy sources, such as solar or wind power, to power cooling equipment. Other options include using waste heat recovery systems, which capture and reuse the heat generated by the cooling process, and using energy-efficient equipment, such as high-efficiency chillers and cooling towers.

Best Practices for Reducing Energy Consumption and Waste

Businesses can implement several best practices to reduce energy consumption and waste in process cooling systems. These include:

  • Conducting regular energy audits to identify areas where energy consumption can be reduced

  • Optimizing the performance of cooling equipment by monitoring temperature and flow rates

  • Upgrading to energy-efficient equipment and technologies

  • Implementing waste heat recovery systems

  • Using variable speed drives to control the speed of fans and pumps to match the cooling load

  • Implementing a preventive maintenance program to ensure that equipment functions efficiently

By implementing these best practices and considering sustainable process cooling options, businesses can reduce their environmental impact, lower their operating costs, and improve the efficiency of their process cooling systems.

Maintaining and Optimizing Process Cooling Equipment

Regular maintenance procedures, troubleshooting common issues, and utilizing upgrades and optimization options are essential to ensure optimal performance and longevity of process cooling equipment.

Regular Maintenance Procedures

Regular maintenance procedures for process cooling equipment may include cleaning condenser coils, replacing air filters, checking refrigerant levels, inspecting motors and compressors, and lubricating moving parts. Performing these maintenance procedures regularly can help to prevent equipment breakdowns, extend the lifespan of the equipment, and ensure that the equipment is functioning at maximum efficiency.

Troubleshooting Common Issues

Despite regular maintenance, cooling equipment may experience issues from time to time. Common issues may include refrigerant leaks, compressor failure, frozen coils, and electrical problems. Identifying and troubleshooting these issues as soon as possible is important to prevent further damage and ensure that the equipment is functioning properly.

Upgrades and Optimization Options

In addition to regular maintenance and troubleshooting, several upgrades and optimization options can improve the performance and efficiency of process cooling equipment. These upgrades may include the installation of variable frequency drives to control the speed of motors and pumps, using energy-efficient compressors and motors, and installing automated controls to optimize the operation of the equipment.

By implementing regular maintenance procedures, troubleshooting issues as they arise, and considering upgrades and optimization options, businesses can ensure that their process cooling equipment is functioning at maximum efficiency, reducing energy consumption and costs, and extending the lifespan of the equipment.


Process cooling is essential to many industries, including manufacturing, plastics processing, food and beverage processing, data centers, and medical and pharmaceutical industries. It plays a crucial role in maintaining the quality and consistency of products and ensuring the proper functioning of equipment.

At Universal Chilling Systems, our goal is to provide affordable cooling solutions to a wide range of industries by offering both Standard Packaged units, as wells as customizable units built to your specification. These compact, all-in-one chillers are designed and tailored with serviceability and maintenance in mind. The No-Tools removable panel provide instant accessibility to all major components.

​Every Unit is built with the industry renowned components and a following series of safety protection devices implemented to safeguard and extend the life of your chiller.


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